Covid: What do under-30s need to know about the vaccine?

The vaccine rollout is now reaching younger adults.

What do they need to know about getting jabbed?

Who can get a vaccine now?

  • In England, people aged 30 and over can book online or by calling 119
  • In Scotland, people aged 30 and over are being invited for a vaccination
  • In Wales vaccines to everyone aged 18 and over can get a vaccine
  • In Northern Ireland, people aged 18 and over can book online or call 0300 200 7813

What vaccine will I get and can I choose?

The UK is using Covid vaccines made by:

  • Pfizer-BioNTech
  • Oxford-AstraZeneca (AZ)
  • Moderna

A single-dose jab made by Janssen has also been approved.

You can’t choose what vaccine you get, but you will be allocated one based partly on your age.

If you’re under 40 or pregnant you will get Pfizer or Moderna.

But, if you’ve already had one AZ jab with no after-effects you should have a second dose.

What are the side effects and the risk of blood clots?

Most are mild, completely normal and disappear after a few days.

They happen because the body’s defences are reacting to the vaccine, and include:

  • A sore arm
  • Tiredness
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Feeling sick

People aged under 55 are more likely to get side-effects from Pfizer and Moderna.

With AstraZeneca, side effects are more common after the first dose than the second.

Under-40s are being offered alternatives to AstraZeneca because of a possible link between the vaccine and extremely rare blood clots in a tiny number of people.

It’s not clear if the vaccine is the cause, but the clots appear to happen slightly more often in younger adults.

For everyone else, the benefits of AZ and the other vaccines far outweigh risks.

Remember 1,900 people in every million have died from Covid in the UK, and blood clots are a common symptom of the disease.


Nurse preparing a vaccine

image copyrightGetty Images

Do I have to have the vaccine?

No. But everyone is being urged to get two doses to protect themselves, their family, friends and wider society.

The vaccines:

  • Have saved more than 13,000 UK lives, according to Public Health England
  • Help reduce person to person virus spread
  • Help protect against new variants

Without a jab, you may not be able to travel abroad or do certain jobs.


Table comparing the Oxford, Pfizer, Moderna, Novavax and Janssen vaccines


What about people with allergies?

A very small number of people have experienced a severe allergic reaction, anaphylaxis, after the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines.

This can happen with some vaccines. You should discuss allergies with your healthcare professional.

What if I am pregnant?

You should get Pfizer or Moderna, because there is more evidence those jabs are safe in pregnant women.

If you prefer, you can delay vaccination until after your 12-week scan.

Will jabs affects my fertility?

There is no evidence at all the vaccines cause fertility problems in men or women.

Claims to the contrary on social media are false.

In fact, getting coronavirus itself has the potential to affect fertility.


Get vaccinated when offered - sign in Bolton

image copyrightGetty Images

Does the vaccine affect periods?

Some women say they’ve experienced unusually heavy periods after being jabbed but it’s not known if the vaccine was the cause.

If it was, experts say there’s nothing to worry about.

What if I’ve got long Covid?

A recent, not yet published study suggests vaccination can help improve long Covid symptoms.

The vaccine could press the body’s reset button and help it recover, researchers say.

Can I drink alcohol after the vaccine?

You don’t need to avoid alcohol but it’s best not to overdo it for a few days if you have vaccine side-effects.

What if I hate needles?

When you are jabbed, say you don’t like needles. Then look away.

Many people say the injection is painless and hardly notice anything.


Young person being vaccinated

image copyrightPA Media

Will teenagers get the jab?

Pfizer is currently only approved for UK-use in over-16s, with AstraZeneca and Moderna approved for over-18s.

Older teens, rather than younger ones, are more likely to be infected and pass on the virus, although they’re unlikely to fall ill.

Some areas with Covid spikes have been vaccinating anyone aged over 18, including in parts of Glasgow, Greater Manchester and Hounslow in London.

Will all children get the jab?

Because children are extremely unlikely to become ill, the argument for vaccinating them would be to keep cases low and protect adults and the vulnerable.

But some say this is unethical with so many unvaccinated at-risk adults around the world.

Most vaccine developers are testing jabs on children.

  • Should all children get a Covid vaccine?
  • US authorises Pfizer vaccine for adolescents

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